Economic Thoughts and Essays

By Rhys Williams

The Credit Channel

The credit channel is an enhancement mechanism for traditional monetary policy transmission, not a truly independent or parallel channel. Discuss The traditional monetary policy transmission works through a number of conventional channels: interest rate effect, exchange rate effect, asset price effect and through expectations. The stance of monetary policy acts as a signal to firms Read more about The Credit Channel[…]

What is Social Ontology and why should Economists care?

Literally, social ontology is the study of social nature and it concerns itself with “how existents exist”1. It is the study of the social realm which includes the “domain of all phenomena, existents, properties”2 whose existence depends upon humans and their interactions. To paraphrase Little “almost all human action is social: socially oriented, socially embedded or socially Read more about What is Social Ontology and why should Economists care?[…]

The Relationship Between Debt and Growth

The debt-growth nexus has received renewed interest among academics and policy makers alike in the aftermath of the recent global financial crisis and the subsequent euro area sovereign debt crisis. Discuss whether there exists a tipping point, for public indebtedness, beyond which economic growth drops off significantly; and more generally, whether a build-up of public Read more about The Relationship Between Debt and Growth[…]

Investment Functions

In this article we explain the fundamental factors determining investment decisions of firms, which comprise the investment function. By determining the structure of the investment function we can hypothetically estimate this and thus predict how much a given firm ought to be investing, given economic fundamentals. This is interesting because we could then aggregate such Read more about Investment Functions[…]

GDP Data Revisions

The importance of accurate GDP data is often understated and there is a need to document carefully the extent of revisions to statistics on economic activity and evaluate how this affects macroeconomic policy as well as examine ways to improve statistical methods. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) has a trade-off between providing estimates on Read more about GDP Data Revisions[…]

Why has wage inequality risen?

Wage inequality has increased in many economies in recent decades. Discuss the three leading hypotheses regarding the causes of this increase. What does the empirical evidence tell us about the quantitative importance of each of these factors? The US economy has almost double since the 1970s, and labour productivity has risen over this period. Yet real wages for Read more about Why has wage inequality risen?[…]

The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: A Summary

Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (AJR) attempt to measure the effects of institutions on income differences by introducing an exogenous source of variation in institutions to measure their differing outcomes. They begin by pointing out that the history of colonisation resulted in different institutions being formed: some countries received extractive institutions (whereby the coloniser would simply Read more about The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: A Summary[…]

Economic Growth: Where does it come from?

One of the fundamental questions of economics is why are some countries rich and others poor? Why do some countries experience heavy growth which allows them to catch-up with the economic giants of the world, whilst others are relegated to the bottom and are unable to jump on the growth train? Is it due to Read more about Economic Growth: Where does it come from?[…]

Did small scale firms inhibit Victorian Growth?

Britain’s manufacturing firms have been accused of remaining family-run and small scale in the period 1850-1914, so ignoring the benefits of the large corporation evident in the USA. Discuss whether this represents a form of entrepreneurial failure by the owners of British firms. Chandler identifies that corporation’s in America are vertically and horizontally integrated, invested Read more about Did small scale firms inhibit Victorian Growth?[…]