Why is Competition Good?

Firms have to be competitive in order to keep profits up and to remain in business. If they didn’t keep prices low then other firms could enter the market and undercut the incumbent firm, thus taking away its market share and supernormal profit. Alternatively rivals may do the same. These low prices benefit consumers and should result in more consumer surplus. Because prices are lower more of the good is demanded and hence the firm will produce more, this reduces allocative inefficiency as more resources are going towards the production of goods and services demanded by consumers (a definition of allocative efficiency). [...]

Discuss whether a concentrated market is necessarily anti-competitive

Here is an essay we were set for class. As always feel free to leave any feedback below.

A concentrated market (one in which there is a high value for the n-concentration ratio) is a market in which there are few firms which possess a relatively large market share. ThisĀ fulfilsĀ one of the criterion of an oligopolistic market.

Because the market consists of only a few firms we may assume that there are economies of scale to be had by producing a large output. Due to this a few large firms will be able to exploit these economies of scale and hence will be operating a lower point on their average cost curve. [...]